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Planting Calendar for O'Neill, NE

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The planting calendar below tells you when to plant in the SPRING and also plant in the FALL, based on your zip code or postal code.

Spring Planting Calendar

Our spring planting calendar starts with the very first dates that you can plant (based on the last spring frost). But if you've missed these dates, no worries! This is why we've added "last planting dates" to our spring calendar; this is meant to help new gardeners understand that if they missed the first spring planting window, they could still get crops in the ground.

In fact, many crops with short maturity times (such as radishes) can be succession planted all the way through the summer in northern areas. However, note that some cool-season crops, such as kale and lettuce, do not grow well in hot temperatures, which can cause bolting issues.  For some gardeners, especially in the South, a break to avoid summer heat is needed, but they can start once the heat has passed. 

The dates provided are based on the number of weeks before or after frost, so we can provide a unique calendar to every user in the country. Thus, several crops (especially similar crops) may appear to have the same date. Kale and lettuce, for example, or dates for starting seeds, like broccoli and cabbage. 

Fall Planting Calendar

When we say "fall," we really mean planting in summer in time for a fall harvest. Think of this as a second summer! It's easy to keep the crops going if you've already prepared the soil! 

Many crops that would be started indoors for a spring crop can just be plunked into the soil directly for a fall crop. Not only is the soil already warm but also there are less pests and it tends to be rainier so you don't need to water as often. Some fall vegetables need to be harvested by the first frost, but many are frost-tolerant and even taste better after a kiss of fall frost!

See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific planting, plant care, and harvesting information.

Specifically, on the charts, there are different columns labeled as follows:

  1. Start Seeds Indoors: When to sow seeds indoors to get an early start on the season.
  2. Plant Seedlings Outdoors: When to put small seedlings that you grew indoors (OR starter plants that you bought at a garden nursery) in the outdoor soil.
  3. Start Seeds Outdoors: When to plant seeds directly into the outdoor soil.
  4. Last Date to Plant: You may plant any time from the "start seeds" dates until this "last date." Don't wait any longer, or the crop won't have time to get to harvest before fall/winter frosts.

The "Moon Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on Moon phases. You can learn more about this age-old technique below.

When N/A appears in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended, although it is likely still possible. 

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Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 7 (at O'NEILL, NE climate station, elevation 1991 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds OutdoorsLast Date to Plant
ArugulaFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
Sep 1
AsparagusN/AN/AFrost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 24-May 6
May 7
BasilFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-23
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-23
Aug 18
BeetsN/AFrost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 24-May 6
Frost Apr 9-16
May 21
Bell PeppersFrost Feb 26-Mar 12
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
N/AJul 7
Bok ChoyFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Jun 18
BroccoliFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
Jul 28
Brussels SproutsFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
Jun 23
CabbageFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
Jun 16
CantaloupesFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost May 7-21
Moon May 7-21
Frost May 14-21
Moon May 14-21
Jun 23
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-23
Jul 21
CauliflowerFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost Apr 30-May 14
Moon May 7-14
N/AJul 21
CeleryFrost Feb 12-26
Moon Feb 12-24
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 14-23
Frost May 7
Moon May 7
Jul 21
ChivesFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Aug 4
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 7-21
Moon May 7-21
May 28
CollardsFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Jul 21
CucumbersFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 14-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Jul 21
DillN/AN/AFrost Apr 30-May 21
Moon May 7-21
Aug 4
Dry BeansN/AN/AFrost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Jun 23
EggplantsFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
N/AJul 21
Fava BeansN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
May 21
FennelFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost May 14-21
Moon May 14-21
Frost May 7-21
Moon May 7-21
Jul 14
GarlicN/AN/AN/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost May 14-Jun 4
Moon May 14-23
Jul 21
Honeydew MelonsFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Jun 30
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Feb 26-Mar 12
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
N/A
KaleFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
May 21
KohlrabiFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
May 21
LeeksFrost Feb 26-Mar 12
Frost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-23
N/AJun 16
LettuceFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
May 21
Mustard GreensN/AN/AN/A
OkraFrost Apr 9-23
Moon Apr 9-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-23
Jul 21
OnionsN/AFrost Apr 9-23
N/AJun 23
OreganoFrost Feb 26-Mar 26
Moon Mar 13-25
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 14-23
N/AJul 21
ParsleyFrost Feb 26-Mar 12
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 14-23
Frost Apr 9-May 14
Moon Apr 9-23, May 7-14
Jul 14
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-16
Jun 23
PeanutsN/AN/AFrost May 28-Jun 11
Moon May 28-Jun 5
PeasN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
May 21
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-23
Jul 21
PumpkinsFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Jun 16
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-16
Aug 4
RosemaryFrost Feb 12-26
Moon Feb 12-24
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
N/AAug 4
SageFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 14-23
N/AJul 14
SalsifyN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-23
Jun 23
SpinachFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost Apr 9-16
Moon Apr 9-16
May 21
Sweet CornN/AN/AFrost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-23
Jul 14
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 24-Jun 4
Jun 16
Swiss ChardFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23
Frost Apr 16-May 7
Moon Apr 16-23, May 7
May 21
ThymeFrost Feb 26-Mar 12
Frost May 14-21
Moon May 14-21
N/AJul 7
TomatillosFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Apr 8-9
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-23
N/AJul 14
TomatoesFrost Mar 12-26
Moon Mar 12-25
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
N/AJun 30
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-16
Sep 1
WatermelonsFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Frost May 14-21
Moon May 14-21
Jun 30
Winter SquashFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 14-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Jun 9
Zucchini (Summer Squash)Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-23
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 14-23
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-23
Jul 28

Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on September 29 (at O'NEILL, NE climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds OutdoorsTransplantAverage Days to MaturityFrost Tolerance
ArugulaFrost Aug 11-Sep 15
Moon Aug 11-19, Sep 2-15
N/A40Frost-hardy
BeetsFrost Jul 7-Aug 4
Moon Jul 22-Aug 3
N/A50Frost-tolerant
Bok ChoyFrost Jul 21-Aug 11
Moon Jul 21, Aug 5-11
N/A50Frost-tolerant
BroccoliFrost Jun 30-Jul 7
Moon Jul 5-7
Frost Jul 21-Aug 4
Moon Jul 21
60Frost-tolerant
Brussels SproutsFrost Jun 9-23
Moon Jun 9-21
N/A100Frost-hardy
CabbageFrost Jun 30-Jul 7
Moon Jul 5-7
Frost Jul 21-28
Moon Jul 21
90Frost-tolerant
CarrotsFrost Jul 14-21
N/A70Frost-tolerant
CauliflowerFrost Jun 23-30
Frost Jul 7-14
Moon Jul 7-14
75Frost-tolerant
ChivesFrost Jul 7-Aug 4
Moon Jul 7-21, Aug 4
N/A70Frost-tolerant
FennelFrost Jun 30-Jul 14
Moon Jul 5-14
N/A80Tender
GarlicFrost Oct 13-27
Moon Oct 18-27
N/A120Frost-hardy
Green BeansFrost Jul 14-28
Moon Jul 14-21
N/A55Tender
KaleFrost Jul 21-Aug 4
Moon Jul 21
N/A60Frost-hardy
KohlrabiFrost Jul 28-Aug 18
Moon Aug 4-18
N/A45Frost-tolerant
LettuceFrost Jul 21-Aug 4
Moon Jul 21
N/A60Frost-tolerant
Mustard GreensFrost Jul 28-Aug 18
Moon Aug 4-18
N/A45Tender
PeasFrost Jul 21-Aug 4
Moon Jul 21
N/A55Tender
RadishesFrost Aug 18-Sep 1
Moon Aug 20-Sep 1
N/A25Frost-tolerant
SpinachFrost Aug 11-Sep 1
Moon Aug 11-19
N/A30Frost-hardy
Swiss ChardFrost Jul 21-Aug 4
Moon Jul 21
N/A60Frost-tolerant
TurnipsFrost Jul 28-Aug 11
Moon Jul 28-Aug 3
N/A50Frost-tolerant
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