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2023 Planting Calendar: When to Start Vegetable Seeds | The Old Farmer's Almanac

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Planting Calendar for Rapid Valley, SD

For the Almanac's fall and spring planting calendars, we've calculated the best time to start seeds indoors, when to transplant young plants outside, and when to direct seed into the ground.

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Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 9 (at RAPID CITY WFO, SD climate station, elevation 3379 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds Outdoors
ArugulaN/AN/AFrost Apr 25-May 9
Moon Apr 25-May 5
BasilFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost May 9-30
Moon May 19-30
N/A
BeetsN/AN/AFrost Apr 25-May 16
Moon May 6-16
Bell PeppersFrost Feb 27-Mar 14
Moon Feb 27-Mar 7
Frost May 16-30
Moon May 19-30
N/A
BroccoliFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost Apr 11-May 2
Moon Apr 19-May 2
N/A
CabbageFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost Apr 11-25
Moon Apr 19-25
N/A
CantaloupesFrost Apr 11-18
Frost May 23-Jun 6
Moon May 23-Jun 3
N/A
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 4-18
Moon Apr 6-18
CauliflowerFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost Apr 11-May 2
Moon Apr 19-May 2
N/A
CeleryFrost Feb 27-Mar 14
Moon Feb 27-Mar 7
Frost May 16-30
Moon May 19-30
N/A
ChivesN/AN/AFrost Apr 11-18
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 9-23
Moon May 19-23
CornN/AN/AFrost May 23-Jun 13
Moon May 23-Jun 3
CucumbersFrost Apr 11-18
Frost May 23-Jun 6
Moon May 23-Jun 3
N/A
DillN/AN/AFrost May 9-Jun 13
Moon May 19-Jun 3
EggplantsFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost May 23-Jun 6
Moon May 23-Jun 3
N/A
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)Frost Feb 13-27
Moon Feb 20-27
Frost Mar 21-Apr 11
Moon Mar 21-Apr 5
N/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost May 16-Jun 6
Moon May 19-Jun 3
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Feb 27-Mar 14
Moon Feb 27-Mar 7
Frost May 16-30
Moon May 19-30
N/A
KaleFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost Apr 11-May 2
Moon Apr 19-May 2
N/A
KohlrabiFrost Mar 28-Apr 11
Moon Mar 28-Apr 5
Frost Apr 18-25
Moon Apr 19-25
N/A
LettuceFrost Mar 28-Apr 11
Moon Mar 28-Apr 5
Frost Apr 25-May 23
Moon Apr 25-May 5, May 19-23
N/A
OkraN/AN/AFrost May 23-Jun 6
Moon May 23-Jun 3
OnionsN/AN/AFrost Apr 11-May 2
Moon Apr 11-18
OreganoFrost Feb 27-Mar 28
Moon Feb 27-Mar 7, Mar 21-28
Frost May 9-30
Moon May 19-30
N/A
ParsleyN/AN/AFrost Apr 11-25
Moon Apr 19-25
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 18-May 9
Moon Apr 18, May 6- 9
PeasN/AN/AFrost Mar 28-Apr 18
Moon Mar 28-Apr 5
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 2-23
Moon May 6-18
PumpkinsFrost Apr 18-May 2
Moon Apr 19-May 2
Frost May 23-Jun 6
Moon May 23-Jun 3
N/A
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Mar 14-Apr 4
Moon Mar 14-20
RosemaryFrost Feb 27-Mar 14
Moon Feb 27-Mar 7
Frost May 16-Jun 6
Moon May 19-Jun 3
N/A
SageFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost May 9-23
Moon May 19-23
N/A
SpinachN/AN/AFrost Mar 28-Apr 18
Moon Mar 28-Apr 5
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 30-Jun 13
Moon Jun 4-13
Swiss ChardFrost Mar 28-Apr 11
Moon Mar 28-Apr 5
Frost Apr 18-25
Moon Apr 19-25
N/A
ThymeFrost Feb 27-Mar 28
Moon Feb 27-Mar 7, Mar 21-28
Frost May 9-30
Moon May 19-30
N/A
TomatoesFrost Mar 14-28
Moon Mar 21-28
Frost May 16-Jun 6
Moon May 19-Jun 3
N/A
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 11-May 2
Moon Apr 11-18
WatermelonsFrost Apr 11-18
Frost May 23-Jun 6
Moon May 23-Jun 3
N/A
Winter SquashN/AN/AFrost May 23-Jun 20
Moon May 23-Jun 3, Jun 17-20
ZucchiniN/AN/AFrost May 23-Jun 20
Moon May 23-Jun 3, Jun 17-20

Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on October 1 (at RAPID CITY WFO, SD climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Start Seeds Indoors by...Plant Seedlings Outdoors by...Start Seeds Outdoors by...
ArugulaN/AN/AFrost Aug 27
BeetsN/AN/AFrost Aug 17
Bell PeppersFrost Apr 18Frost Jun 13N/A
BroccoliFrost Jun 20Frost Jul 18N/A
CabbageFrost Jun 10Frost Jul 8N/A
CantaloupesN/AN/AFrost June 6
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Aug 12
CauliflowerFrost Jun 20Frost Jul 18N/A
CeleryFrost Apr 9Frost Jun 18N/A
CornN/AN/AFrost Jun 23
CucumbersN/AN/AFrost Jun 28
EggplantsFrost Apr 18Frost Jun 13N/A
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)N/AN/AFrost Aug 2
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost Jun 28
Jalapeño PeppersFrost May 8Frost Jul 3N/A
KaleFrost Jul 10Frost Aug 7N/A
KohlrabiN/AN/AFrost Aug 12
LettuceN/AN/AFrost Aug 22
OkraN/AN/AFrost Jun 23
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Jun 28
PeasN/AN/AFrost Jul 28
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Jul 18
PumpkinsN/AN/AFrost June 6
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Aug 27
SpinachN/AN/AFrost Sep 6
Sweet PotatoesFrost Apr 29Frost June 13N/A
Swiss ChardN/AN/AFrost Aug 22
TomatoesFrost Apr 23Frost Jun 18N/A
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Aug 22
WatermelonsN/AN/AFrost June 6
Winter SquashN/AN/AFrost June 20
ZucchiniN/AN/AFrost Jul 3