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2023 Planting Calendar: When to Start Vegetable Seeds | The Old Farmer's Almanac

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Planting Calendar for Watertown, SD

For the Almanac's fall and spring planting calendars, we've calculated the best time to start seeds indoors, when to transplant young plants outside, and when to direct seed into the ground.

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Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 7 (at WATERTOWN 2 S, SD climate station, elevation 1771 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds Outdoors
ArugulaN/AN/AFrost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23-May 5
BasilFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost May 7-28
Moon May 19-28
N/A
BeetsN/AN/AFrost Apr 23-May 14
Moon May 6-14
Bell PeppersFrost Feb 25-Mar 11
Moon Feb 25-Mar 7
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 19-28
N/A
BroccoliFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost Apr 9-30
Moon Apr 19-30
N/A
CabbageFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost Apr 9-23
Moon Apr 19-23
N/A
CantaloupesFrost Apr 9-16
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
N/A
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 6-16
CauliflowerFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost Apr 9-30
Moon Apr 19-30
N/A
CeleryFrost Feb 25-Mar 11
Moon Feb 25-Mar 7
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 19-28
N/A
ChivesN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-16
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 7-21
Moon May 19-21
CornN/AN/AFrost May 21-Jun 11
Moon May 21-Jun 3
CucumbersFrost Apr 9-16
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
N/A
DillN/AN/AFrost May 7-Jun 11
Moon May 19-Jun 3
EggplantsFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
N/A
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)Frost Feb 11-25
Moon Feb 20-25
Frost Mar 19-Apr 9
Moon Mar 21-Apr 5
N/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost May 14-Jun 4
Moon May 19-Jun 3
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Feb 25-Mar 11
Moon Feb 25-Mar 7
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 19-28
N/A
KaleFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost Apr 9-30
Moon Apr 19-30
N/A
KohlrabiFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Mar 26-Apr 5
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
N/A
LettuceFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Mar 26-Apr 5
Frost Apr 23-May 21
Moon Apr 23-May 5, May 19-21
N/A
OkraN/AN/AFrost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
OnionsN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-30
Moon Apr 9-18
OreganoFrost Feb 25-Mar 26
Moon Feb 25-Mar 7, Mar 21-26
Frost May 7-28
Moon May 19-28
N/A
ParsleyN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-23
Moon Apr 19-23
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 16-May 7
Moon Apr 16-18, May 6- 7
PeasN/AN/AFrost Mar 26-Apr 16
Moon Mar 26-Apr 5
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Apr 30-May 21
Moon May 6-18
PumpkinsFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 19-30
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
N/A
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Mar 11-Apr 2
Moon Mar 11-20
RosemaryFrost Feb 25-Mar 11
Moon Feb 25-Mar 7
Frost May 14-Jun 4
Moon May 19-Jun 3
N/A
SageFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost May 7-21
Moon May 19-21
N/A
SpinachN/AN/AFrost Mar 26-Apr 16
Moon Mar 26-Apr 5
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 28-Jun 11
Moon Jun 4-11
Swiss ChardFrost Mar 26-Apr 9
Moon Mar 26-Apr 5
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
N/A
ThymeFrost Feb 25-Mar 26
Moon Feb 25-Mar 7, Mar 21-26
Frost May 7-28
Moon May 19-28
N/A
TomatoesFrost Mar 11-26
Moon Mar 21-26
Frost May 14-Jun 4
Moon May 19-Jun 3
N/A
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 9-30
Moon Apr 9-18
WatermelonsFrost Apr 9-16
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
N/A
Winter SquashN/AN/AFrost May 21-Jun 18
Moon May 21-Jun 3, Jun 17-18
ZucchiniN/AN/AFrost May 21-Jun 18
Moon May 21-Jun 3, Jun 17-18

Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on September 29 (at WATERTOWN 2 S, SD climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Start Seeds Indoors by...Plant Seedlings Outdoors by...Start Seeds Outdoors by...
ArugulaN/AN/AFrost Aug 25
BeetsN/AN/AFrost Aug 15
Bell PeppersFrost Apr 16Frost Jun 11N/A
BroccoliFrost Jun 18Frost Jul 16N/A
CabbageFrost Jun 8Frost Jul 6N/A
CantaloupesN/AN/AFrost June 4
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Aug 10
CauliflowerFrost Jun 18Frost Jul 16N/A
CeleryFrost Apr 7Frost Jun 16N/A
CornN/AN/AFrost Jun 21
CucumbersN/AN/AFrost Jun 26
EggplantsFrost Apr 16Frost Jun 11N/A
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)N/AN/AFrost Jul 31
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost Jun 26
Jalapeño PeppersFrost May 6Frost Jul 1N/A
KaleFrost Jul 8Frost Aug 5N/A
KohlrabiN/AN/AFrost Aug 10
LettuceN/AN/AFrost Aug 20
OkraN/AN/AFrost Jun 21
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Jun 26
PeasN/AN/AFrost Jul 26
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Jul 16
PumpkinsN/AN/AFrost June 4
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Aug 25
SpinachN/AN/AFrost Sep 4
Sweet PotatoesFrost Apr 27Frost June 11N/A
Swiss ChardN/AN/AFrost Aug 20
TomatoesFrost Apr 21Frost Jun 16N/A
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Aug 20
WatermelonsN/AN/AFrost June 4
Winter SquashN/AN/AFrost June 18
ZucchiniN/AN/AFrost Jul 1