Protecting the Garden From Frost: Temperature Lows for Vegetables

Protection Tips and Temperature Chart

May 8, 2020
Seedlings and Frost Cover

Planting seedlings of peppers in the soil in the spring with frost cover for protection.


Here are tips on how to protect your garden from frost and design a garden to reduce frost damage—plus, a handy chart listing dangerous temperature lows for vegetables.

To know when your area typically gets frost, see our Frost Dates Calculator.

Whether you are waiting to plant in spring or those late fall days are getting frosty, it is important that frosts will not hamper your efforts.

When to Protect Your Plants

If temperatures below 32°F (0°C) are predicted, protect your plants! A moderate freeze with temperatures in the 25–28°F (-4 to -2°C) range can be widely destructive to vegetation. 

Frost protection is especially important for tender plants such as geraniums, begonias, impatiens, peppers, and tomatoes.

  • In the spring, use row covers if you have tender vegetable seedlings and transplants. Row covers or garden fleece can also be used to help create a warmer environment beneath them. You’ll need to use posts or bamboo to create space for the plants to grow, then drape landscape fabric or plastic over the posts; weigh down the edges with rocks or bricks or pegs so the covers do not blow away. 
  • Alternatively, you can recycle clear plastic drinks bottles as plant covers or “cloches.” Simply cut a bottle in half using sharp scissors, then place the top half over your plant. Keep the lid off on sunny days, or screw it on when cold weather is forecast. Keep your bottle cloches from blowing away by pushing them into the soil or by holding them in place with a cane.
  • Cover other established plants with frost cloths or other insulators including newspapers, straw, old sheets and bedspreads, or evergreen branches. Cover the whole plant; you’re trying to retain radiated heat.
  • It’s best to have all covers in place well before sunset. Drape loosely to allow for air circulation. Before you cover the plants in late afternoon or early evening, water your plants lightly. 
  • The plants should be mulched, but pull the mulch back from the root of the plants.
  • Remove the covers by mid-morning.
  • In the fall, the first frost is often followed by a prolonged period of frost-free weather. Cover tender flowers and vegetables on frosty nights, and you may be able to enjoy extra weeks of gardening.

What Temperatures Cause Frost Damage?

Designing Your Garden to Reduce Frost

Here are different ways through which you can reduce the amount of cooling in and around your garden.

  • Your garden will warm up more during the day if it slopes toward the sun. Residual heat in plants and soil may determine whether your garden sustains frost damage during the night. Cold air, which is dense and heavy, will flow away from plants growing on a slope—what the experts call “drainage.” 
  • A garden on a south-facing slope offers two advantages: more exposure to the Sun, and better drainage of cold air. In deep valleys, nighttime temperatures may be as much as 18°F lower than the temperature on the surrounding hills.
  • Trees surrounding your garden act like a blanket and reduce the amount of heat radiating from the soil, perhaps keeping the temperature high enough to protect your plants from early fall frosts. Plants themselves can modify cooling. Place plants close together to create a canopy that entraps heat from the soil (though the tops can still suffer frost damage).
  • A garden wall benefits the garden by acting as a heat sink, absorbing warmth from the Sun during the day and radiating it slowly at night.
  • Water in a nearby lake or pond (if it is one acre or larger) will also act as a heat sink. A cold frame can be heated with an improvised heat sink: a dozen 1-gallon jugs of water. They absorb heat during the day and radiate it at night.
  • Moisture also determines whether frost will nip your tomatoes. Condensation warms and evaporation cools. When moisture in the air condenses on plants and soil, heat is produced, sometimes raising the temperature enough to save the plants. On the other hand, if the air is dry, moisture in the soil will evaporate, removing some heat.
  • Good soil, full of organic matter, retains moisture, reducing the rate of evaporation. Mulch also helps to prevent evaporation.
  • In early spring, warm up your soil faster by covering it over with plastic, row covers or garden fleece. This technique is particularly useful for heavy or clay soils that retain a lot of moisture. Lay the plastic over the ground at least one week before sowing and soil temperatures will rise by a couple of degrees, making all the difference for early sowings.
  • Of course, raised beds will warm up more quickly thanks to the free-draining conditions within them, so if you have raised beds, start your first sowings here.

Design your garden with the Almanac Garden Planner which uses averaged frost data from nearly 5,000 weather stations across the U.S. and Canada. To benefit from this, consider a free 7-day trial to our Almanac Garden Planner!

Predicting Frost

When the sky seems very full of stars, expect frost. –Weather Lore

If it has been a glorious day, with a clear sky and low humidity, chances are that temperatures will drop enough at night to cause frost.

Find out how to predict that a frost is coming!

Reader Comments

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Henry Lauder Walking Stick (Corylus avellana "Contorta")

bought last Fall - in a pot - 2 feet tall - kept indoors - now budding (leaves) - should I repot plant and keep indoors or plant outside? What exposure and other care????? Know it will get tall and wide. LOVE IT.

What a fantastic plant. You

The Editors's picture

What a fantastic plant. You can keep it as an excellent container plant for many years. It sounds as if your plant is at its mature height (two feet) and you’ll contain its size by leaving in the container pot. If the roots begin escaping from the drainage holes (an indication it is pot-bound), you can transplant it into a larger, more decorative pot. You can start with a 5-gallon sized pot and move it to a larger one in 4 to 5 years. Use a 50-50 mixture of garden soil and potting soil; garden soil for weight and potting soil for fast drainage. Make sure the soil never dries out.