Planting Calendar for Canaan, CT

For the Almanac's fall and spring planting calendars, we've calculated the best time to start seeds indoors, when to transplant young plants outside, and when to direct seed into the ground.

Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on September 29 (at FALLS VILLAGE, CT climate station).
Crop Based on Frost Dates
Start Seeds Indoors by...Plant Seedlings Outdoors by...Start Seeds Outdoors by...
BeetsN/AN/A Aug 15
Bell Peppers Apr 16 Jun 11N/A
Broccoli Jun 18 Jul 16N/A
Brussels Sprouts Jun 8 Jul 6N/A
Cabbage Jun 8 Jul 6N/A
CantaloupesN/AN/A June 15
CarrotsN/AN/A Aug 10
Cauliflower Jun 18 Jul 16N/A
Celery Apr 7 Jun 16N/A
CornN/AN/A Jun 21
CucumbersN/AN/A Jun 26
Eggplants Apr 16 June 15N/A
Green BeansN/AN/A Jun 26
Kale Jul 8 Aug 5N/A
LettuceN/AN/A Aug 20
OkraN/AN/A Jun 21
ParsnipsN/AN/A Jun 26
PeasN/AN/A Jul 26
PotatoesN/AN/A Jul 16
PumpkinsN/AN/A June 15
RadishesN/AN/A Aug 25
SpinachN/AN/A Sep 4
Summer Squash (Zucchini)N/AN/A Jul 1
Swiss ChardN/AN/A Aug 20
Tomatoes Apr 21 Jun 16N/A
TurnipsN/AN/A Aug 20
WatermelonsN/AN/A June 15

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 18 (at FALLS VILLAGE, CT climate station).
Crop Based on Frost Dates   Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds Outdoors
Basil Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
May 18-Jun 8
May 22-Jun 5
N/A
BeetsN/AN/A May 4-25
May 8-21
Bell Peppers Mar 9-23
Mar 9
May 25-Jun 8
May 25-Jun 5
N/A
Broccoli Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
Apr 20-May 11
Apr 22-May 7
N/A
Brussels Sprouts Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
Apr 20-May 4
Apr 22-May 4
N/A
Cabbage Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
Apr 20-May 4
Apr 22-May 4
N/A
Cantaloupes Apr 20-27
Apr 22-27
Jun 1-15
Jun 1- 5
N/A
CarrotsN/AN/A Apr 13-27
Apr 13-21
Cauliflower Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
Apr 20-May 11
Apr 22-May 7
N/A
Celery Mar 9-23
Mar 9
May 25-Jun 8
May 25-Jun 5
N/A
ChivesN/AN/A Apr 20-27
Apr 22-27
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/A May 18-Jun 1
May 22-Jun 1
CornN/AN/A May 18-Jun 1
May 22-Jun 1
Cucumbers Apr 20-27
Apr 22-27
Jun 1-15
Jun 1- 5
N/A
DillN/AN/A Apr 13-27
Apr 22-27
Eggplants Mar 9-23
Mar 9
Jun 1-15
Jun 1- 5
N/A
Green BeansN/AN/A May 25-Jun 15
May 25-Jun 5
Kale Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
Apr 20-May 11
Apr 22-May 7
N/A
Lettuce Apr 6-20
Apr 6- 7
May 4-Jun 1
May 4- 7, May 22-Jun 1
N/A
OkraN/AN/A Jun 1-15
Jun 1- 5
OnionsN/AN/A Apr 20-May 11
Apr 20-21, May 8-11
Oregano Mar 9-Apr 6
Mar 9, Mar 24-Apr 6
May 18-Jun 8
May 22-Jun 5
N/A
ParsleyN/AN/A Apr 20-May 4
Apr 22-May 4
ParsnipsN/AN/A Apr 27-May 18
May 8-18
PeasN/AN/A Apr 6-27
Apr 6- 7, Apr 22-27
PotatoesN/AN/A May 11-Jun 1
May 11-21
Pumpkins Apr 27-May 11
Apr 27-May 7
Jun 1-15
Jun 1- 5
N/A
RadishesN/AN/A Mar 23-Apr 13
Mar 23, Apr 8-13
Rosemary Mar 9-23
Mar 9
May 25-Jun 15
May 25-Jun 5
N/A
Sage Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
May 18-Jun 1
May 22-Jun 1
N/A
SpinachN/AN/A Apr 6-27
Apr 6- 7, Apr 22-27
Summer Squash (Zucchini) Apr 20-May 4
Apr 22-May 4
Jun 1-15
Jun 1- 5
N/A
Sweet Potatoes Apr 20-27
Apr 20-21
Jun 1-15
Jun 6-15
N/A
Swiss Chard Apr 6-20
Apr 6- 7
Apr 27-May 4
Apr 27-May 4
N/A
Thyme Mar 9-Apr 6
Mar 9, Mar 24-Apr 6
May 18-Jun 8
May 22-Jun 5
N/A
Tomatoes Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 24-Apr 6
May 25-Jun 15
May 25-Jun 5
N/A
TurnipsN/AN/A Apr 20-May 11
Apr 20-21, May 8-11
Watermelons Apr 20-27
Apr 22-27
Jun 1-15
Jun 1- 5
N/A

How to Use the Planting Calendar

This planting calendar is a guide that tells you the best time to start planting your garden, based on frost dates. Our planting calendar is customized to your location in order to give you the most accurate information possible. Please note:

  • The Frost Dates indicate the best planting dates based on your local average frost dates. Average frost dates are based on historical weather data and are the planting guideline used by most gardeners. Although frost dates are a good way to know approximately when to start gardening, always check a local forecast before planting outdoors!
  • The Plant Seedlings or Transplants dates indicate the best time to plant young plants outdoors. This includes plants grown from seed indoors at home and small starter plants bought from a nursery.
  • When no dates ("N/A") appear in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended for that particular plant, although it likely still possible. See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific information. 
  • The Moon Dates indicate the best planting dates based on your local frost dates and Moon phases. Planting by the Moon is considered a more traditional technique. We use Moon-favorable dates at the very start of the gardening season. It's a little complex for a fall planting.

To plan your garden more accurately in the future, keep a record of your garden's conditions each year, including frost dates and seed-starting dates!

Frequently Asked Questions

Why Do You Start Seeds Indoors?

In the spring, starting seeds indoors (in seed trays or starter pots) gives your crops a head start on the growing season, which is especially important in regions with a short growing season. Starting seeds indoors also provides plants with a chance to grow in a stable, controlled environment. Outdoors, the unpredictability of rain, drought, frost, low and high temperatures, sunlight, and pests and diseases can take a toll on young plants, especially when they're just getting started. Indoors, you can control these elements to maximize your plants' early growth and give them the best shot at thriving when they are eventually transplanted outdoors. 

For most crops, you should start seeds indoors about 6-8 weeks before your last spring frost date. This gives the plants plenty of time to grow large and healthy enough to survive their eventual transplanting to the garden.

Read more about starting seeds indoors here

How Is Planting for a Fall Harvest Different? 

Planting in late summer for a fall harvest has many benefits (soil is already warm, temperatures are cooler, fewer pests). However, the challenge is getting your crops harvested before the winter frosts begin. When we calculate fall planting dates (which are really in the summer), we must account for several factors, such as the time to harvest once the crop is mature and whether a crop is tender or hardy when it comes to frost. The "days to maturity" of a crop and the length of your growing season also factor into whether you start seeds early indoors or directly sow seeds into the ground outside. Note:

  • Warm-weather veggies like beans, corn, squashes, pumpkins, cucumbers, cantaloupe, and watermelons are all sown directly into the ground.
  • Tender heat-loving plants such as tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants take a long time to mature and have a lengthy harvesting period, so we generally don't plant a second round of these crops for fall, as they won't ripen in time. (In regions with mild winters, this may not be the case.) These crops are typically started indoors early in the season and transplanted.
  • Root vegetables (beets, carrots) do not transplant well, so start seeds directly in the soil outside.
  • Peas are also best seeded into the ground; do not transplant.
  • Cole crops like broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and cabbage could be direct seeded, but because of the heat of mid- and late summer, it's better to start them indoors and then transplant them into the garden.
  • We tend to direct-sow leafy greens such as lettuce, chard, and spinach, though some gardeners will also sow indoors. It depends on your climate.
  • Note that garlic is not included in our planting chart. It's a popular fall crop, but the dates vary wildly based on location and it's really best to gauge garlic planting dates with a soil thermometer. When the soil temperature is 60°F (15.6°C) at a depth of 4 inches, then plant your garlic. We'd advise checking our Garlic Growing Guide for more information. 

Read more about the "Best Vegetables to Plant in the Fall."

When Should You Transplant Seedlings?

When seedlings have grown too large for their seed trays or starter pots, it's time to transplant. If it's not yet warm enough to plant outdoors, transplant the seedlings to larger plastic or peat pots indoors and continue care. If outdoor conditions allow, start hardening off your seedlings approximately one week before your last frost date, then transplant them into the garden. Get more tips for transplanting seedlings.

What Is Planting by the Moon?

Planting by the Moon (also called "Gardening by the Moon") is a traditional way to plant your above- and below-ground crops, especially at the start of the season. Here's how it works:

  • Plant annual flowers and vegetables that bear crops above ground during the light, or waxing, of the Moon. In other words, plant from the day the Moon is new until the day it is full.
  • Plant flowering bulbs, biennial and perennial flowers, and vegetables that bear crops below ground during the dark, or waning, of the Moon. In other words, plant from the day after the Moon is full until the day before it is new again.

Old-time farmers swear that this practice results in a larger, tastier harvest, so we've included planting by the Moon dates in our planting calendar, too. Learn more about Planting and Gardening by the Moon.