Planting Calendar for Victor, MT

For the Almanac's fall and spring planting calendars, we've calculated the best time to start seeds indoors, when to transplant young plants outside, and when to direct seed into the ground.

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on June 1 (at WESTERN AG RSCH CTR, MT climate station).
Crop Based on Frost Dates   Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds Outdoors
ArugulaN/AN/A May 18-Jun 1
May 18-26
Basil Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
Jun 1-22
Jun 10-22
N/A
BeetsN/AN/A May 18-Jun 8
May 27-Jun 8
Bell Peppers Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 23-28
Jun 8-22
Jun 10-22
N/A
Broccoli Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
May 4-25
May 11-25
N/A
Brussels Sprouts Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
May 4-18
May 11-18
N/A
Cabbage Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
May 4-18
May 11-18
N/A
Cantaloupes May 4-11
May 11
Jun 15-29
Jun 15-24
N/A
CarrotsN/AN/A Apr 27-May 11
Apr 27-May 10
Cauliflower Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
May 4-25
May 11-25
N/A
Celery Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 23-28
Jun 8-22
Jun 10-22
N/A
ChivesN/AN/A May 4-11
May 11
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/A Jun 1-15
Jun 10-15
CornN/AN/A Jun 1-15
Jun 10-15
Cucumbers May 4-11
May 11
Jun 15-29
Jun 15-24
N/A
DillN/AN/A Apr 27-May 11
May 11
Eggplants Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 23-28
Jun 15-29
Jun 15-24
N/A
Green BeansN/AN/A Jun 8-29
Jun 10-24
Kale Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
May 4-25
May 11-25
N/A
Kohlrabi Apr 20-May 4
Apr 20-26
May 11-18
May 11-18
N/A
Lettuce Apr 20-May 4
Apr 20-26
May 18-Jun 15
May 18-26, Jun 10-15
N/A
OkraN/AN/A Jun 15-29
Jun 15-24
OnionsN/AN/A May 4-25
May 4-10
Oregano Mar 23-Apr 20
Mar 23-28, Apr 11-20
Jun 1-22
Jun 10-22
N/A
ParsleyN/AN/A May 4-18
May 11-18
ParsnipsN/AN/A May 11-Jun 1
May 27-Jun 1
PeasN/AN/A Apr 20-May 11
Apr 20-26, May 11
PotatoesN/AN/A May 25-Jun 15
May 27-Jun 9
Pumpkins May 11-25
May 11-25
Jun 15-29
Jun 15-24
N/A
RadishesN/AN/A Apr 6-27
Apr 6-10, Apr 27
Rosemary Mar 23-Apr 6
Mar 23-28
Jun 8-29
Jun 10-24
N/A
Sage Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
Jun 1-15
Jun 10-15
N/A
SpinachN/AN/A Apr 20-May 11
Apr 20-26, May 11
Sweet Potatoes May 4-11
May 4-10
Jun 15-29
Jun 25-29
N/A
Swiss Chard Apr 20-May 4
Apr 20-26
May 11-18
May 11-18
N/A
Thyme Mar 23-Apr 20
Mar 23-28, Apr 11-20
Jun 1-22
Jun 10-22
N/A
Tomatoes Apr 6-20
Apr 11-20
Jun 8-29
Jun 10-24
N/A
TurnipsN/AN/A May 4-25
May 4-10
Watermelons May 4-11
May 11
Jun 15-29
Jun 15-24
N/A
Zucchini May 4-18
May 11-18
Jun 15-29
Jun 15-24
N/A

Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on September 13 (at WESTERN AG RSCH CTR, MT climate station).
Crop Based on Frost Dates
Start Seeds Indoors by...Plant Seedlings Outdoors by...Start Seeds Outdoors by...
ArugulaN/AN/A Aug 9
BeetsN/AN/A Jul 30
Bell Peppers Mar 31 June 22N/A
Broccoli Jun 2 Jun 30N/A
Brussels Sprouts May 23 Jun 20N/A
Cabbage May 23 Jun 20N/A
CantaloupesN/AN/A June 29
CarrotsN/AN/A Jul 25
Cauliflower Jun 2 Jun 30N/A
Celery Mar 22 June 22N/A
CornN/AN/A June 15
CucumbersN/AN/A June 29
Eggplants Mar 31 June 29N/A
Green BeansN/AN/A June 29
Kale Jun 22 Jul 20N/A
KohlrabiN/AN/A Jul 25
LettuceN/AN/A Aug 4
OkraN/AN/A June 29
ParsnipsN/AN/A Jun 10
PeasN/AN/A Jul 10
PotatoesN/AN/A Jun 30
PumpkinsN/AN/A June 29
RadishesN/AN/A Aug 9
SpinachN/AN/A Aug 19
Swiss ChardN/AN/A Aug 4
Tomatoes Apr 5 June 29N/A
TurnipsN/AN/A Aug 4
WatermelonsN/AN/A June 29
ZucchiniN/AN/A June 29

How to Use the Planting Calendar

This planting calendar is a guide that tells you the best time to start planting your garden, based on frost dates. Our planting calendar is customized to your location in order to give you the most accurate information possible. Please note:

  • The Frost Dates indicate the best planting dates based on your local average frost dates. Average frost dates are based on historical weather data and are the planting guideline used by most gardeners. Although frost dates are a good way to know approximately when to start gardening, always check a local forecast before planting outdoors!
  • The Plant Seedlings or Transplants dates indicate the best time to plant young plants outdoors. This includes plants grown from seed indoors at home and small starter plants bought from a nursery.
  • When no dates ("N/A") appear in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended for that particular plant, although it likely still possible. See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific information. 
  • The Moon Dates indicate the best planting dates based on your local frost dates and Moon phases. Planting by the Moon is considered a more traditional technique. We use Moon-favorable dates at the very start of the gardening season. It's a little complex for a fall planting.

To plan your garden more accurately in the future, keep a record of your garden's conditions each year, including frost dates and seed-starting dates!

Frequently Asked Questions

Why Do You Start Seeds Indoors?

In the spring, starting seeds indoors (in seed trays or starter pots) gives your crops a head start on the growing season, which is especially important in regions with a short growing season. Starting seeds indoors also provides plants with a chance to grow in a stable, controlled environment. Outdoors, the unpredictability of rain, drought, frost, low and high temperatures, sunlight, and pests and diseases can take a toll on young plants, especially when they're just getting started. Indoors, you can control these elements to maximize your plants' early growth and give them the best shot at thriving when they are eventually transplanted outdoors. 

For most crops, you should start seeds indoors about 6-8 weeks before your last spring frost date. This gives the plants plenty of time to grow large and healthy enough to survive their eventual transplanting to the garden.

Read more about starting seeds indoors here

How Is Planting for a Fall Harvest Different? 

Planting in late summer for a fall harvest has many benefits (soil is already warm, temperatures are cooler, fewer pests). However, the challenge is getting your crops harvested before the winter frosts begin. When we calculate fall planting dates (which are really in the summer), we must account for several factors, such as the time to harvest once the crop is mature and whether a crop is tender or hardy when it comes to frost. The "days to maturity" of a crop and the length of your growing season also factor into whether you start seeds early indoors or directly sow seeds into the ground outside. Note:

  • Warm-weather veggies like beans, corn, squashes, pumpkins, cucumbers, cantaloupe, and watermelons are all sown directly into the ground.
  • Tender heat-loving plants such as tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants take a long time to mature and have a lengthy harvesting period, so we generally don't plant a second round of these crops for fall, as they won't ripen in time. (In regions with mild winters, this may not be the case.) These crops are typically started indoors early in the season and transplanted.
  • Root vegetables (beets, carrots) do not transplant well, so start seeds directly in the soil outside.
  • Peas are also best seeded into the ground; do not transplant.
  • Cole crops like broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and cabbage could be direct seeded, but because of the heat of mid- and late summer, it's better to start them indoors and then transplant them into the garden.
  • We tend to direct-sow leafy greens such as lettuce, chard, and spinach, though some gardeners will also sow indoors. It depends on your climate.
  • Note that garlic is not included in our planting chart. It's a popular fall crop, but the dates vary wildly based on location and it's really best to gauge garlic planting dates with a soil thermometer. When the soil temperature is 60°F (15.6°C) at a depth of 4 inches, then plant your garlic. We'd advise checking our Garlic Growing Guide for more information. 

Read more about the "Best Vegetables to Plant in the Fall."

When Should You Transplant Seedlings?

When seedlings have grown too large for their seed trays or starter pots, it's time to transplant. If it's not yet warm enough to plant outdoors, transplant the seedlings to larger plastic or peat pots indoors and continue care. If outdoor conditions allow, start hardening off your seedlings approximately one week before your last frost date, then transplant them into the garden. Get more tips for transplanting seedlings.

What Is Planting by the Moon?

Planting by the Moon (also called "Gardening by the Moon") is a traditional way to plant your above- and below-ground crops, especially at the start of the season. Here's how it works:

  • Plant annual flowers and vegetables that bear crops above ground during the light, or waxing, of the Moon. In other words, plant from the day the Moon is new until the day it is full.
  • Plant flowering bulbs, biennial and perennial flowers, and vegetables that bear crops below ground during the dark, or waning, of the Moon. In other words, plant from the day after the Moon is full until the day before it is new again.

Old-time farmers swear that this practice results in a larger, tastier harvest, so we've included planting by the Moon dates in our planting calendar, too. Learn more about Planting and Gardening by the Moon.