When to Harvest Vegetables and Fruit

How and When is the Best Time to Pick Vegetables and Fruit

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How do you know when to pick vegetables at the peak of flavor? When is your fruit ripe for picking? See our fruit and vegetable harvesting guide for the most common vegetables and fruit. Pick at the peak—in the garden and in the market!

  • Remember, bigger is not always better. Many vegetables taste best before they grow too big. For example, zucchini are best picked when they are 6 to 8 inches long.  After vegetables and fruit hit their peak ripeness, the flavor will start to deteriorate.
  • Also, ripeness timing can vary widely. For example, pears are picked when they are still hard. Tomatoes can ripen on or off the vine. Watermelons must be fully developed before being picked.
  • Finally, once a crop starts producing, check the garden every day. Picking vegetables as soon as they are ripe often encourages the plant to produce more. Pinch or cut back herbs frequently to keep them productive (and to keep them from flowering).

Have more questions about specific crops? Click on the linked crops below to go straight to the plant page with growing and harvesting tips!

Vegetables and Herbs

Artichokes

Globes should be plump, compact, and tightly closed. Green bracts (“leaves” of the bud) are not wilted and squeak if gently squeezed.

Asparagus

Cut spears that are about 6 inches in length. Look for tightly closed tips and firm yet tender stalks (whether thick or thin).

Basil

Harvest as soon as the flower buds begin to appear (but before they open) for the best flavor.

Beans

Taste one and decide. Standard varieties of snap beans are ready to be harvested when they are as thick as a pencil and before the seeds bulge and become visible through the pods.

Lima beans are ready when their pods take on a green color and feel full. When bean pods turn white or yellow, feed them to the pigs or the compost pile.

Beets

Look for small to medium-size roots (1-½ to 3 inches in diameter). Beets can be harvested at any time, but the larger ones will often be tougher and woody. Beets should have smooth, firm flesh, show a rich color, and have healthy green leaves (not wilted).

If you are eating beets for their greens, they can be harvested any time once their leaves are 4 to 6 inches long.

Broccoli

Pick when the broccoli flower heads are dark blue-green and the buds are compact—before the buds turn yellow or start flowering. Cut 6 to 7 inches below the flower heads. If the underside of the top turns yellow, the broccoli is overripe. The stalks should be firm and the greens should be green and fresh (not limp). The small, tender leaves also are nutritious.

Brussels Sprouts

Harvest sprouts (buds) when they reach at least 1 inch in diameter, harvesting from the bottom of the stalk first. Note that Brussels sprouts’ flavor is improved by a light frost or two. Do not strip the leaves since they are needed for growth. 

Cabbage

Look for a firm head and crisp, richly colored leaves. Avoid a cracked head, pale color, or wilted leaves.

Carrots

Young carrots are the sweetest. Carrots are mature at ½-inch to 1 inch in diameter. Look for a bright color, firm body, and smooth skin. The leaves should be crisp and green. Carrots that have splitting (due to weather that was too dry or wet) often taste bitter.

Cauliflower

The heads should be compact, white, and firm—about 6 to 7 inches in diameter. The leaves should be bright green. If the head is soft or the leaves are yellow, the cauliflower is past its peak. To keep heads from turning yellow, fold the outer leaves over the head when it’s just 2 to 3 diameters.

Celery

Stalks should be harvested when eight-inches long. Look for a fresh aroma, firm stalks, a green and glossy hue, and healthy green leaves.

Chives

Cut before the purple blossoms form, and keep them cut back for the sweetest flavor.

Corn

Corn is one of those crops that starts to lose its flavor the minute it’s picked. Ripe, just-picked ears have a tightly attached husk that is pliable, healthy, and green. If you open an ear and stab a kernel with your fingernail, a milky liquid should ooze out; if it contains water or is dry, it’s not good. The kernels should be plump and arranged in tight rows that extend to the tip of an ear. Harvest early in the morning and eat within 72 hours for best flavor. If this isn’t possible, cool the ears on ice and then refrigerate them.

Cucumbers

Harvest when about 6 inches long. Look for richly dark green skin and a heavy, firm body. Small cukes are the sweetest and have the softest seeds. If they get too big, cukes turn yellowish or dull in color and the taste is not as crisp.

Eggplant

Harvest at 4 to 6 inches in diameter when the skin of the fruit is smooth, shiny, and unwrinkled. The color should be richly colored and the body should be heavy and firm. Avoid large-size eggplant.

Garlic

The wrapper or “paper” should be unbroken, tight, and dry (not disintegrate). When harvesting, the tops will turn yellow. The bulb should be firm and plumb, not shriveled or spongy. Avoid sprouts.

Kale

Harvest mature kale leaves when they are the size of your hand or a little bit bigger. As with spinach, younger leaves will be more tender.

Leeks

Harvest when the white portions are about one-and-a-half inches in diameter.

Lettuce (Head)

Head lettuce should be about 6 inches in diameter with a firm, compact head that slightly yields when squeezed. Look for clean, crisp leaves with healthy color. With leaf lettuce, pick any time, but the leaves are much more tender and flavorful when they are less than five inches long. 

Okra

Pick the pods when they are 2-½ to 4 inches long, or about 4 to 6 days old, after the flower wilts. Keep picking to keep the pods producing.

Onions

Wait for the tops of onions to fall over and turn brown before you pull them. Let the bulbs dry out for several days, then cut off the tops and rots and store in a cool, dry place. Harvest green onions when they are 6 to 8 inches tall and the bulbs are 1 to 2 inches in diameter.

Parsnips

Parsnips are ready for harvest after approximately 16 weeks. Leave them in the ground for at least a few frosts to maximize their flavor. 

Peas

Pick when plump but before the pods wrinkle on the stem and take on a dull whitish cast. It’s best to pick a “test” pod and open it to see if the seeds have started to swell and getting round but still tender.

Peppers

Pick peppers are soon as they are shiny green and baseball-sized. If you prefer yellow, orange, or red peppers, just leave them on the vine longer and they will become sweeter. Hot peppers left to change color will get hotter.

Potatoes

Potatoes should have a firm body and be heavy for size, without any black or soft spots, sprouts, wrinkles, or greenish tinge.  Wait until the foliage has died down for one or two weeks and then dig up. 

Pumpkins and Winter Squashes

These cousins are ready to harvest when their skin hardens. Press your fingernail through the flesh. If you have to work at it, the squash is ripe; if it’s very easy to pierce, the squash is immature. The skin should be full (non-glossy), firm, and rich in color without blemishes or cracks or soft spots. The stem should be dry and firm.

Radishes

Pick when one inch in diameter or they will turn “hot” and woody. Look for a firm, smooth, well-shaped body. The color should be bright. The leaves should be healthy and green.

Rhubarb

Harvest rhubarb stalks when they are at least a foot in length. Refrain from harvesting too many stalks at once, as this could damage the plant.

Spinach

Look for healthy, dark green leaves that are 4 to 6 inches long. Spinach that was left too long in the ground will have oversize leaves and taste bitter.

Summer Squashes

Yellow squash and zucchini are at their best when they’re 4 to 8 inches long. Pick them young when you can puncture the skin with a fingernail. Plenty more will follow. They should feel firm, heavy for size, and show a bright and healthy skin as well as stem. Avoid dull or hard skin, an oversize body, soft spots, blemishes, and a dry stem.

Sweet Potatoes

Look for a firm body without a greenish tinge, soft spots or wrinkles. If harvesting, dig when the vines turn yellow and take care to avoid broken roots and bruises. Harvest before the first frost. Cure in a warm well-ventilated place for 2 to 3 weeks.

Swiss Chard

Cut the first leaves when they’re 4 to 6 inches high. Then let the leaves grow until they’re 6 to 10 inches high before cutting again.

Tomatoes

Leave your tomatoes on the vine as long as possible. The perfect tomato for picking will be very red or rich in color, regardless of size. A ripe tomato will be firm and plump—only slightly soft. The skin will be smooth and glossy. The aroma will be fragrant. Do pick all tomatoes before frost; ripen in a dark place indoors.

Turnips

The best tasting turnips are the size of golf balls. They have a firm body, smooth skin, rich color, and crisp leaves that are very green.

Winter Squash and Pumpkins

Harvest when fruits are full size and the rinds are the color desired because they will not continue to ripen. Rind should be firm and glossy. Leave squash on stems for better storing and pick before fall frost.

Fruits

Apples

Look for rich color, smooth skin, and a firm body. On the tree, the stem should part readily from the branch when the fruit is cupped in the palm of your hand and given a slight twist around, then up.

Blackberries

Look for the plump berries with a uniform black, shiny color with a hint of dullness. Avoid reddish color.

Blueberries

Look for the plump, firm berries with a uniform dark blue color with powdery white coating (called bloom). If picking yourself, don’t rush to pick the berries as soon as they turn blue. Wait a couple days. When they are ready, they should fall off right into your hand.

Cantaloupes

Look for a fragrant aroma, a hollow sound when thumped, and a blossom end that is slightly springy when pressed. The color under the skin’s netting should be yellow or cream color.

Cherries

Look for plump, firm fruit with a glossy, uniform, dark color for the variety and a fragrant aroma.

Figs

Figs should be allowed to fully ripen on the tree. The fruit should give slightly when gently squeezed, but should not be overly squishy. The mature fruit’s color will depend on the tree’s variety. Figs grow perpendicularly out of the branch and will hang down slightly when they are ready to be harvested. Wear gloves and long sleeves while picking figs, as the tree’s sap can irritate the skin.

Grapes

Look for plump, firm grapes that are tightly attached to the stems. If the green variety, the color should be green tinged with yellow; if the red variety, color should be dark red without any green; if the purple variety, color should be almost black without any green.

Lemons and Oranges

The best indicator of ripeness is taste. However, start with lemons that are heavy for their size and show a bright yellow color. Avoid dull or greenish color and soft spots.

Peaches

At their peak, peaches have a golden color and a body that yields easily when gently squeezed. There should be no green left on the fruit. If you pick off a tree, the peaches should come off the tree with only a slight twist. The fruits found on the top and outside of the tree usually ripen first.

Pears

Harvest pears when they are mature but still hard. Most varieties do not change color when ripe, but the color should be consistent and the aroma fragrant. The stem area should yield slightly to pressure.

Plums

Plums will have the best flavor when left to ripen on the tree for as long as possible. Squeeze the fruit gently, and if it feels soft, the plum is ripe. Ripe fruits will come off the tree easily; just give them a slight twist.

Raspberries

The berry will be fragrant, plump, fairly firm (not mushy), and show a bright, uniform color. If you’re picking your own, don’t tug too hard on your raspberries. A ripe raspberry will leave the vine willingly.

Strawberries

Ripe strawberries are fully red in color and shiny. They’ll be plump, green-capped, and have a fragrant aroma.

Watermelon

A ripe watermelon should have a symmetrical body shape, a buttery yellow underbelly, and a skin that’s neither too dull nor shiny. If you’re harvesting from the garden, the watermelon’s ready when the stem curls and turns brown and the place where the melon touches the ground turns yellow. Rap it with your knuckles and listen for a dull, hollow sound.

Source: 

This page was first published in 2009 and is regularly updated.

Reader Comments

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I really like the stories you put in the Old Farmer Almanac, however it would be great if it was printable.

Printing

Thank you for your kind words! At the top of each article, there are light grey symbols. One of these is a print symbol.  We hope this is helpful! 

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What about Brussels Sprouts?

What about Brussels Sprouts?

Harvest Brussels Sprouts from

Harvest Brussels Sprouts from the bottom of the stalk when they reach about 1 inch in diameter. See our Brussels Sprouts growing guide here: www.almanac.com/plant/brussels-sprouts

FORGOT TO SAY I LIVE IN

FORGOT TO SAY I LIVE IN GEORGIA

HI,I live in a blg w/125

HI,I live in a blg w/125 aptmts under HUD.THEY made some garden plots for us(not very good)7 to 9 in. high only about 6 to 8 foot long.THE only thing I planted was 2 tomatoe plants,4 DILL plants 1 PARCLY, AND A PACK OF SWISS CHARD. THE tomatoe and parcly and mint grew everything else died.and I always been a good gardener,so I have no clue why.Some one told me you should not plant DILL and tomatoes together,is this true?I VERY MUCH WAS looking forward to the SWISS CHARD,but it all died.Please tell me whats going on and the best way to plant my SWISS CHARD.THANK YOU!

Depending on where you live

Depending on where you live you can plant some more swiss chard seed now and get a fall harvest. Chard likes cool weather. Please see our chard page for growing tips.
http://www.almanac.com/plant/c...
 
 

when is spaghetti squash

when is spaghetti squash ripe, or ready ti pick?

Spaghetti Squash is ripe and

Spaghetti Squash is ripe and ready to be picked when the rinds turn a dark yellow and they are tough enough that you can't puncture them with your fingernail. 

I have a watermelon that is

I have a watermelon that is solid green, no colour change on the bottom, and vine still producing babies and smaller ones... Looks dull, and the tendril is yellowing, but not dried out or dead yet. The new melons have a paler green striped look, this one has no stripes almost at all now...

Leave the melon on the vine

Leave the melon on the vine until the vine turns brown and dies.

I have sugar baby watermelon

I have sugar baby watermelon in the garden almost ready I think. If part of it is yellow but the stem is still green, should I keep waiting?

We'd wait until the tendril

We'd wait until the tendril turns brown and they no longer look shiny on the outside.

Thanks!

Thanks!

I have a dawarf grapefruit

I have a dawarf grapefruit tree, cherry tree, plum tree, and orange tree. When is it best to start pruning all of them. I live in zone 9 on the border of san bernardino and riverside counties Ca.

How about eggplant? How do

How about eggplant? How do you know when it is ready for harvest?

We added eggplant above!

We added eggplant above!

When should rutabagas be

When should rutabagas be picked?

What about cucumbers?

What about cucumbers?

Harvest cucumbers when they

Harvest cucumbers when they are about 6 inches long.

Read more about them here http://www.almanac.com/plant/c...

how about sunchokes/jerusalem

how about sunchokes/jerusalem artichoke? i'm growing them for the first time this year, and i'm wondering when i can taste the first ones! :-)

thanks!

You should leave them in the

You should leave them in the ground until you want to eat them. Do not begin digging them until after a sharp frost. The frost makes them sweeter. Remember that what you haven't dug up and eaten will produce more plants next year. They are delicious and are highly invasive. Also extremely good for breaking up heavy clay soils.

when is it time to harvest

when is it time to harvest oranges,grapefruit??have large ones and orange but green still on, but it is now late dec. ??????? not soft????

 Studies show that the longer

 Studies show that the longer you can leave your oranges and grapefruit on the tree, the sweeter they will become. They start dropping off in January, so the longer the better! For more info, try this link: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/patiocitrus/harvesting.html

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